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This is an indispensable resource in the search for the optimal plastic packaging. Materials characteristics, additives and their effects, mass transport phenomena, quality assurance, and recent regulatory requirements from FDA and European Commission are covered in detail with ample data.
Table of Contents
List of Contributors.
1 Preservation of Quality Through Packaging (Albert Baner and Otto Piringer).
1.1 Quality and Shelf-Life. 1.2 Physical and Chemical Interactions Between Plastics and Food or Pharmaceuticals. 1.3 The Organization of this Book.
2 Characteristics of Plastic Materials (Johannes Brandsch and Otto Piringer).
2.1 Classification, Manufacture, and Processing Aids. 2.2 Structure and States of Aggregation in Polymers. 2.3 The Most Important Plastics.
3 Polymer Additives (Jan Pospisil and Stanislav Nespurek)
3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Antifogging Agents. 3.3 Antistatic Agents. 3.4 Blowing Agents. 3.5 Colorants. 3.6 Fillers and Reinforcing Agents. 3.7 Lubricants. 3.8 Nucleating Agents. 3.9 Optical Brighteners. 3.10 Plasticizers. 3.11 Stabilizers. 3.12 Transformation Products of Plastic Stabilizers. 3.13 Conclusions.
4 Partition Coefficients (Albert Baner and Otto Piringer).
4.1 Experimental Determination of Polymer/Liquid Partition Coefficients. 4.2 Thermodynamics of Partition Coefficients. 4.3 Estimation of Partition Coefficients Between Polymers and Liquids.
5 Models for Diffusion in Polymers (Peter Mercea).
5.1 Diffusion in Polymers – The Classical Approach. 5.2 Diffusion in Polymers – The Computational Approach. 5.3 Conclusions.
6 A Uniform Model for Prediction of Diffusion Coefficients with Emphasis on Plastic Materials (Otto Piringer).
6.1 Introduction. 6.2 Interaction Model. 6.3 Prerequisites for Diffusion Coefficients. 6.4 The Diffusion Coefficient.
7.1 The Transport Equations. 7.2 Solutions of the Diffusion Equation. 7.3 Numerical Solutions of the Diffusion Equation.
8 Solution of the Diffusion Equation for Multilayer Packaging (Valer Tosa and Peter Mercea).
8.1 Introduction. 8.2 Methods for Solving the Diffusion Problem in a Multilayer (ML) Packaging. 8.3 Solving the Diffusion Equation for a Multilayer Packaging in Contact with a Foodstuff. 8.4 Development of a User-Friendly Software for the Estimation of Migration from Multilayer Packaging.
9 User-Friendly Software for Migration Estimations (Peter Mercea, Liviu Petrescu, Otto Piringer and Valer Tosa).
9.1 Introduction. 9.2 MIGRATEST#Lite – A User-Friendly Software for Migration Estimations.
10 Permeation of Gases and Condensable Substances Through Monolayer and Multilayer Structures (Horst-Christian Langowski).
10.1 Introduction: Barrier Function of Polymer-Based Packaging. 10.2 Permeation Through Polymeric Materials. 10.3 Substance Transport Through Single and Multilayer Polymer Substrates Combined with One Inorganic Barrier Layer. 10.5 Substance Transport Through Polymers Filled with Particles. 10.6 Experimental Findings: Polymer Films and One Inorganic Barrier Layer. 10.7 Experimental Findings: Combinations of Polymer Films and More Than One Inorganic Barrier Layer. 10.8 Experimental Findings: Polymers Filled with Platelet-Shaped Particles. 10.9 Experimental Findings: Permeation of Flavors Through Mono- and Multilayer Films and Combinations with Inorganic Barrier Layers. 10.10 Conclusions.
11 Migration of Plastic Constituents (Roland Franz and Angela Störmer).
11.1 Definitions and Theory. 11.2 Indirect Migration Assessment. 11.3 Migration Experiment. 11.4 Analysis of Migration Solutions. 11.5 Development of Methods, Validation, and Verification. 11.6 Sources of Errors. 11.7 Migration into Food Simulants in Comparison to Foods. 11.8 Consideration of Non Intentionally Added Substances (NIAS) and Other not Regulated Migrants.
12 US FDA Food Contact Materials Regulations (Allan Bailey, Layla Batarseh, Timothy Begley and Michelle Twaroski).
12.1 Introduction. 12.2 Regulatory Authority. 12.3 Premarket Safety Assessment. 12.4 Final Thoughts. 12.5 Conclusions.
13 Community Legislation on Materials and Articles Intended to Come into Contact with Foodstuffs (Luigi Rossi).
13.1 Introduction. 13.2 Community Legislation. 13.3 National Law and European Mutual Recognition. 13.4 National Legislations and Council of Europe Resolutions. 13.5 Conclusions.
14 Packaging Related Off-Flavors in Foods (Albert Baner, Francois Chastellain and André Mandanis).
14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Sensory Evaluation. 14.3 Identification of Off-Flavor Compounds. 14.4 Physical Chemical Parameters Determining Off-Flavors. 14.5 Derivation of Threshold Concentrations of Sensory-Active Compounds.
15 Possibilities and Limitations of Migration Modeling (Peter Mercea and Otto Piringer).
15.1 Correlation of Diffusion Coefficients with Plastic Properties. 15.2 The Partition Coefficient.
Appendix I (Peter Mercea).
A Selection of Additives Used in Many Plastic Materials.